Clinical Trials in AMD
Age-Related Macular Degeneration Studies
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision impairment in older adults. The prevalence of advanced AMD increases with each decade after age 50 years, with the highest prevalence found among those age >80 years. AMD affects upwards of 50 million people worldwide. [Roh.Yanoff Ophthalmology.2019]
There are two forms of AMD: neovascular (wet) and non-neovascular (dry). Although there is no cure for either type, vitamins, good nutrition, and smoking cessation can slow dry AMD progression; AREDS was the first study to demonstrate the benefit of antioxidant and zinc supplementation on the progression of AMD and the associated vision loss. [Roh.Yanoff.Ophthalmology.2019]
Wet AMD was originally treated with lasers and then photodynamic therapy with verteporfin until anti-vascular growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections were found to be more efficacious than laser treatment. Currently, the standard of care for the treatment of wet AMD is aflibercept and ranibizumab, although off-label bevacizumab is often used as well. Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen®) was the first anti-VEGF treatment approved for wet AMD, but is rarely used in today’s clinical settings. [Roh.Yanoff.Ophthalmology.2019]
An ongoing debate in the treatment of wet AMD is the dosing regimen for anti-VEGF therapy. In this disease, effective anti-VEGF treatment necessitates monthly dosing, which can lead to a significant treatment burden for patients, caretakers, and treating physicians. [Roh.Yanoff.Ophthalmology.2019] To overcome those burdens, alternative dosing strategies have been studied, included as-needed treatment (PRN) and treat-and-extend (T&E) therapy. [Roh.Yanoff.Ophthalmology.2019] There are also approved drugs with longer duration of treatment intervals, namely brolucizumab, and others are under investigation. This section lists the most relevant clinical studies in AMD.
Click on the study name to see more details about each particular study. To enhance visibility of graphs and tables, click on the image to enlarge for expanding viewing.